Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI)
The BAI is a self-report questionnaire utilized in the assessment of anxiety severity and symptomatology for individuals ages 17 through 80 years. The BAI is comprised of 21 items which ask the individual about their anxiety during the most recent week, requiring only five to ten minutes to complete. The test is available in a manual or a computer format and is useful in evaluating anxiety across various clinical populations. Each of the 21 items is rated on a four-point scale with “0” on the low end and “3” on the high end. The items are listed as follows: Numbness or tingling, Feeling hot, Wobbliness in legs, Unable to relax, Fear of the worst happening, Dizzy or lightheaded, Heart pounding or racing, Unsteady, Terrified, Nervous, Feelings of choking, Hands trembling, Shaky, Fear of losing control, Difficulty breathing, Fear of dying, Scared, Indigestion, Faint, Face flushed, and Sweating (not due to heat). The items are subsequently summed to derive a total score between 0 and 63. T scores with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10, a percentile rank, a diagnostic range, and a clinical interpretation are also provided.
-Aaron T. Beck
Beck Depression Inventory – Second Edition (BDI-II)
The BDI-II is a self-report questionnaire utilized in the assessment of depression severity and symptomatology for individuals ages 13 through 80 years. The BDI-II is comprised of 21 items which ask the individual about their depression during the most recent two week period. Test time is short requiring only five to ten minutes to complete with manual or computer formats available. Each of the 21 items are rated on a four point scale from “0” on the low end and “3” on the high end. The items are listed as follows: Sadness, Pessimism, Past failure, Loss of pleasure, Guilty feelings, Punishment feelings, Self-dislike, Self-criticalness, Suicidal thoughts, Crying, Agitation, Loss of interest, Indecisiveness, Worthlessness, Loss of energy, Changes in sleep, Irritability, Changes in appetite, Concentration, Tiredness/fatigue, and Loss of interest in sex. The items are subsequently summed to derive a total score between 0 and 63. T scores with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10, a percentile rank, a diagnostic range, and a clinical interpretation are also provided.
-Aaron T. Beck, Robert A. Steer, Gregory K. Brown
Children’s Depression Inventory – Second Edition (CDI-2)
This instrument used to assess depressive symptoms in children and adolescents ages 7 to 17 years during the most recent two week period. The measure is available in hand and computer versions for individual and group administration. The CDI-2 is comprised of four forms. Two forms are self-rated scales and the other two forms are adult-rated scales. Both of the adult-rated forms as well as the self-rated SR form have two scales: Emotional Problems and Functional Problems. Each of these scales includes two subscales: Negative Mood/Physical Symptoms, Negative Self-Esteem and Ineffectiveness, Interpersonal Problems respectively. Scoring the CDI-2 involves summing the items to obtain raw scores which are then converted to T Scores and percentiles based on specific age and gender groups. The groups are separated by male and female for two age groups: 7 through 12 and 13 through 17. Interpretation of the scores falls into five categories; Very Elevated, Elevated, High Average, Average, and Low, each with relative T scores and percentile ranks. The test structure for the CDI-2 is composed of the four subscales and two scales mentioned above, and a Total Depression score.
-Maria Kovacs, Ph.D.
Behavior Assessment System for Children – Third Edition (BASC-3)
The Behavior Assessment System for Children – Second Edition (BASC-3) is a comprehensive multifaceted assessment of behaviors and internal perceptions of individuals aged 2 through 25 years. The system assists professionals with clinical differential diagnosis, educational classification, and planning of treatment services for individuals with emotional and behavioral disorders. The BASC-3 is comprised of rating scales and forms which include a Self-Report of Personality (SRP) scale, Parent Rating Scales (PRS), Teacher Rating Scales (TRS), a Structured Developmental History (SDH) form, and a Student Observation System (SOS) form. The rating scales are organized by rater type and specific age group and include a broad range of behavioral and emotional composites and scales which measure both positive (adaptive) and negative (clinical) aspects of behavior. When interpreting results raw scores are converted to T scores with corresponding percentiles.
-Cecil R. Reynolds, PhD, Randy W. Kamphaus, PhD
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Second Edition and Adolescent Edition (MMPI-2, MMPI-A)
The MMPI-2 and MMPI-A may be administered to an adolescent between 14 and 18 or an adult 18 and above to assess emotional profiles and personality characteristics providing insights into an individual’s level of emotional distress. This measure can play a role in making a diagnostic decision as to whether an individual experiences a mood or anxiety disorder. The MMPI does not provide data related to normal populations but items were rather gathered from psychiatric populations in comparison with “normals.”
Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale – Second Edition (RCMAS-2)
The RCMAS-2 is a self-report rating scale used to measure specific types of anxiety and associated severity in children ages 6 to 19 years. The RCMAS-2 is straightforward and can be completed quickly requiring only 10 to 15 minutes to complete. There are 49 items divided across six total scales. A Total Anxiety Scale with 40 items is part of the Anxiety Scale. There are three anxiety scales; Physiological Anxiety, Worry, and Social Anxiety which each have 12, 16, and 12 items respectively. The RCMAS-2 converts total raw scores from each of the six scales to respective T scores and corresponding percentiles. Each score can be plotted for three distinct age groups; 6 to 8, 9 to 14, and 15 to 19.
-Cecil R. Reynolds, Ph.D., Bert O. Richmond, Ed.D.
Roberts – Second Edition (Roberts-2)
The Roberts-2 is an assessment of social cognition via expressive language used with children and adolescents with social and emotional adjustment difficulties. The test is used as a supplement with other measures and evaluates two primary functions: developmental differences and differences in performance between groups. An age range of 6 to 18 years is appropriate for administration. The Roberts-2 is comprised of 16 card pictures each illustrating various social situations that are used by the examinee to tell a complete story. Scoring guidelines are used for each story with scales that probe different aspects of social cognition. The cards are used to assess both developmental changes as social experience increases and problems in these categories determined by unusual content. 28 scales are organized into seven scale categories for interpretation and include: Theme Overview, Available Resources, Problem Identification, Resolution, Emotion, Outcome, and Unusual or Atypical Responses. Raw scores from these scales are converted to T scores which are used to decide if an area is of clinical significance or concern.
-Glen E. Roberts, PhD